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Research on the development of manufacturing SMEs

Release date:2019-05-22

I. Introduction


     With the sharp rise in China's prices and workers' wages, the average wage has almost doubled compared with that in 2008, but the overall quality of employees has decreased. The national quality ethics of ordinary employees has not received enough attention.


     The country is currently cracking down on corruption, but now the leading cadres are generally not benefiting, and the efficiency of doing things is extremely low. It is difficult for small and medium-sized private enterprises to do things, especially in inland areas;


     Although China's manufacturing small and medium-sized private enterprises already have idle manufacturing processes and technologies, the production equipment of small and medium-sized private enterprises in China is generally backward, requiring a large number of employees, and the competition among enterprises is fierce. Generally, the manufacturing costs are reduced and the production is reduced. The ex-factory price participates in the competition, and this kind of production competition has gradually turned to the lower-cost countries such as Vietnam and India in the international market;


     In the domestic market, the situation of copying jobs, counterfeiting goods and counterfeit products is very serious. The state also lacks the protection of patents and counterfeit goods for a long time. The problem of Chinese manufacturing (anti-made) is serious. China’s creation needs the improvement of the national management system. Follow up...·····


 

Second, the theory


1. Current problems in workers and enterprises


   At present, the employees of China's manufacturing small and medium-sized private enterprises are generally remote areas in China. For example, there are more Yunguichuan areas working in Zhejiang, backward education, backward culture, poor labor skills and poor learning ability; wages of workers in small and medium-sized private enterprises before manufacturing Relatively few now, the accessories are relatively low, and the low-end market demand is large, because it is only low-end counterfeiting, and does not require high-end talents. Ordinary migrant workers can, so China's manufacturing small and medium-sized private enterprises in the previous one or two years It has developed rapidly. The manufacturing small and medium-sized private enterprises are only low-end counterfeiting. The accumulation is only the production of counterfeit technology. The former employee technology is still in the imitation, and even do not know what to do. Anyway, the boss told me what to do. There are even more serious where the wages are high, even though the wages they want do not match their own work levels; especially at present, the wages of employees are rising rapidly, and the technical quality is hardly improved. All the pressure is given to the business owners;


     In order to prevent the enterprises that have worked hard to do so, the bosses will use the previous funds and bank loans to reform and improve their competitiveness. At present, the methods adopted by manufacturing small and medium-sized private enterprises mainly include:


     a. Improve employee's new rewards and improve employee benefits to retain employees.


     b. Business owners participate in various trainings and provide their own management level.


     c. The business owner arranges various employee trainings to improve the overall quality of staff work ability, team awareness, brand awareness and so on.


     d. Buying land to build a factory to expand production scale and improve corporate image.


     e. Register your own brand, digest the previous experience, imitate and digest the high-end products of the same industry, slowly improve your brand trust and popularity, and do your own products.


 

2. Reflections on the competition of enterprises in China (Yongkang City, Zhejiang Province)


At present, many small and medium-sized enterprises, customers (large enterprises supporting) call me what I do, you provide samples I will give you, what brand of packaging you say, we do, this is the so-called market economy, corporate autonomy The right is always in the hands of others, and the company is always in a passive state of inferiority.


There are also some cluster industries. Many small and medium-sized enterprises are viciously competing. They are always working hard to cut corners. They are less materials and lower prices than other small and medium-sized enterprises. They dig the walls of other companies and even dig technical staff for rapid development. Later, there was a technical break in the product, which seriously affected the corporate image and credit. Unlike foreign companies that think of how to make products more perfect, higher value-added, more famous, and more expensive, they will not reduce the quality of materials and other low-cost competition for other companies.


SMEs lack technical input, and there is almost no product development R&D team. They are all working on counterfeiting. They have not been able to change the old problems of Chinese manufacturing. Problems have also shirked responsibility among enterprises. There is little cooperation between enterprises and lack of team spirit.


The companies that have closed down are generally divided into three situations:


1. Short-term loans and long-term investment, in order to improve corporate image, over-investment in fixed assets, capital costs are too high, and corporate profits are insufficient for interest and other capital costs;


    2. Enterprises that have invested a large amount of funds in their own normal operations to participate in private lending, and are seriously affected by the breakout of other companies' capital flows;


3. Enterprises that corporate legal persons go to Macau to gamble;


 

3. SME banking, credit, financing issues


Since the reform and opening up, China's central enterprises have developed rapidly and played a great role in the entire national economy, making great contributions to China's economic growth. At present, China's SMEs account for more than 90% of all enterprises, industrial output value and profits and taxes account for 60% and 40% respectively, and annual export earnings account for 60%, providing 75% of urban employment opportunities. However, due to the fierce competition of enterprises in recent years, the decline of the international situation has caused many enterprises to face greater difficulties. There are many factors that affect and restrict the further development of SMEs. The main problem is the difficulty of financing SMEs. We must solve these problems. The problem is to create conditions for SME financing and promote their healthy development.


At present, there are mainly problems with SME loans:


1. Guaranteed credit system; As far as the SMEs themselves are concerned, on the one hand, there are fewer fixed assets, less than mortgages, and loans are restricted; on the other hand, some small and medium-sized enterprises have repeatedly evaded fees and suspended bank debts during the restructuring process. , damage to their own credit. At the same time, enterprises also feel that there are many mortgages and fees. For example, in the evaluation and registration procedures of land mortgages, the assessment includes applications, field surveys, and limit price estimation. The registration includes land ownership survey, cadastral survey, and land. Registration of rights, etc., is extremely cumbersome. Moreover, in the process of applying for the certificate, the government departments and departments have shirked responsibility from each other and it is difficult to obtain certificates. I bought a state-owned industrial land in Sichuan through the bidding for state-owned land transfer, and I have completed the land certificate through four years of hard work, but other certificates are Months, I don’t know how many times I’ve talked about it, and it’s said at the conference, but the requirements for us are very strict. Any department often checks for rectification training.... Now some local governments have very low credit. ! It is more difficult for SMEs to raise financing.


2. Discrimination against non-state-owned enterprises. For a long time, in the government and banks, there is such a concept that large enterprises are state-owned, and loans to them are state-to-state enterprises and will not cause the loss of state-owned assets. Most of the SMEs are non-state-owned enterprises. The benefits are unstable, loan recovery is not good, and the reputation is poor. It is easy to cause the loss of state-owned assets. Therefore, banks are generally very cautious about SMEs and the conditions are harsh. Although it is now better than before, it still exists.


3. The development of some regional small and medium-sized financial institutions is not standardized, and the support for small and medium-sized enterprises is insufficient. A number of regional small and medium-sized financial institutions have emerged in China's economy, and it is their duty to support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. However, in practice, these financial institutions have a tendency to converge with state-owned financial institutions in terms of business development, and cannot truly face small and medium-sized enterprises. There is a certain phenomenon of credit discrimination.


4. Lack of financial institutions that serve SMEs. At present, China is extremely lacking in financial institutions that serve SMEs. The original intention of Minsheng Bank is to serve private enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises. However, it is no different from other joint-stock commercial banks. Other newly formed city commercial banks It is also for small and medium-sized enterprises. Due to the limited funds, service levels and projects, it is forced to gradually become stricter, which limits the financing of SMEs.


5. SMEs have difficulty financing, and banks feel that it is difficult to lend money. For SMEs, it is difficult to obtain bank loans. The main performance is: First, the mortgage is difficult. Small and medium-sized enterprises can provide less collateral, high collateral discount rate, cumbersome procedures, expensive fees, and SMEs are generally unbearable; second, it is difficult for SMEs to find suitable guarantors. Some good companies are not willing to give guarantees to other enterprises. Banks that do not benefit are generally not allowed to act as guarantors, and the guarantees between SMEs often become nominal. Third, some grassroots banks have limited authorization and procedures. Complex and cumbersome. Even if the money is available, the business opportunity may have been missed. Once the loan is borrowed, some companies would rather accept the penalty interest, and they are not willing to renew the loan, so as to avoid experiencing a full set of loan procedures such as assessment, registration, and notarization. This has made many SMEs regard bank loans as a fearful way, and they have to embark on the path of private lending. The time for private lending is uncertain, and the cost of capital is extremely high. Usually, the interest rate is about 3 points. Enterprises can only temporarily turn around. If they cannot be converted into normal bank loans in time, the use of private lending funds by SMEs is basically the road to bankruptcy. .


6. In terms of intermediate business, there are fewer settlement instruments to meet the needs of SMEs. State-owned commercial banks rarely handle collection and acceptance of bills of exchange and bills for small and medium-sized enterprises. Because the funds settlement channels are not smooth, the funds are being used for too long, and even obstruction occurs. Therefore, some small and medium-sized enterprises are converted to cash settlement, which increases the economic cost and weakens the competitiveness of SMEs.


7. China's SMEs lack the means of direct financing in the capital market. In China's stock market, strict plan management and total amount control methods have been implemented for the issuance of new shares. After 1997, the securities authorities no longer allocated the amount of shares issued to localities and parts, but allocated the number of newly listed companies. In order to raise more funds, local and ministries and commissions are competing to recommend large companies to go public, and it is very difficult for SMEs to enter the securities market. From the perspective of the corporate bond market, the issuance of corporate bonds in China is strictly controlled by the government. According to the operation of the macro economy, the state determines the scale of issuance of corporate bonds in the current year and distributes them to various localities and departments. The People's Bank of China is responsible for approving the time limit, variety and interest rate of the issuance of claims; the CSRC examines whether the bonds are eligible for listing and whether to allow approval of the listing of the bonds on the exchange. It is difficult for SMEs to qualify for issuing bond financing.


     Countermeasures to solve the problem: According to the above analysis of the financing difficulties of SMEs, SME financing difficulties have their own small scale, low assets, high debt ratio, weak guarantee ability; low quality of managers, unsound financial system, low credit rating There are also problems with high risk of bank loans and high costs; and the lack of government support. Therefore, the guiding ideology for solving these problems is to raise funds for SMEs through multiple channels through invigorating local financial markets. Implement policy support, government-led, based on local, market operations, and mitigate risks. To increase the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises and support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, it is necessary to establish a financing system for small and medium-sized enterprises. For example, the transfer loan of the Rural Cooperative Bank of Yongkang City is a good way to solve the funds of SMEs. As soon as possible, designate relevant departments to organize the formulation of laws or regulations on SME loans. First of all, it is necessary to classify the classification criteria of SMEs and clarify the definition methods of SMEs. Secondly, it is necessary to clarify the role and functions of various financial institutions in the credit system of SMEs, and formulate specific management methods and incentive measures for SME loans.


 

4. Differences between small and medium-sized enterprises in coastal areas and inland areas


   With the development and progress of the society, the state encourages coastal enterprises to develop in the central and western regions and balance the economic development of the coastal areas and the central and western regions. However, due to the different living habits and habits of the ancestors in the coastal areas and the central and western regions, the coastal areas to the central and western regions Entrepreneurship is extremely difficult.


   First of all, the efficiency of local government affairs varies greatly. The central and western regions can do things at least half a month in the central and western regions. At least three years can be done in one month. Enterprises can't afford time costs and fixed assets investment. Cost, and cost of capital.


   Second, the procurement cost is extremely high. The industrial product industry chain has not been formed, the procurement cost is quite high, and the price competitiveness is lacking.


   In addition, logistics is backward, logistics costs are almost three times higher, and logistics time is long, lacking time competitiveness.


   Moreover, recruitment is difficult; on the surface, it is very good, but they have poor group awareness, low cultural quality, poor work skills, and lack of positive and positive mental outlook.


   Therefore, it is best not to go to the west to start a business.


 

Third, the conclusion


   Yongkang City SMEs Development Direction


The market is limited and unlimited. The vast sea of business, unlimited business opportunities, it is impossible to be monopolized by any enterprise, and it will never make any enterprise unable to find a living space. The key to the survival and development of small and medium-sized enterprises is to find a place of their own from a broad market. In short, it is to identify the market positioning. The so-called accurate, first to find, good at searching from the ever-changing market, carefully selected, like to find their own half in the public to find out; second, to be accurate, must the market real needs, potential needs and themselves The advantages are organically and scientifically combined to find out the industries in which the company is engaged, the products produced, and the product concept, business philosophy and development direction. Seek truth from facts, truly do business, slow down investment


Degree and scale, reduce corporate risks, and reduce operating costs. I think that SMEs are determining market positioning.


There are several development directions to choose from.

    1. Take the road of specialization and new speciality. If SMEs want to gain an advantage in the fierce market competition and gain a firm foothold, they must insist on giving up, taking something, doing something, doing something wrong, and going "small but special, small and fine, small and new, The road of small and special, to make people without me, people have my special, people specialize in me, people are fine, new, relying on special, fine, new, special occupation of the market. For example, to produce a button, a tie, a lighter, or even a component, as long as we achieve it to the extreme, the lowest cost, the highest quality, the most complete specifications, the largest scale, truly become a "little giant", you can Winning in the market competition. Our company is taking this route, does not participate in low-cost competition, the same traditional products continue to improve the performance and function of their products according to the continuous improvement of production needs, and constantly improve the reliability of product equipment, problems and positive and rapid solutions, and strive to do 100 % satisfied after-sales service work.

     2. Take the road to supporting the big companies in the industry. SMEs without independent brands mostly live in the gap between large enterprises. Faced with the strength of large enterprises, SMEs are at a disadvantage in terms of capital, information, talents, technology, management, etc., competing with large enterprises in producing the same products. The chances of winning are minimal. The sensible way is to use the dragon tail, dragon claws and even dragon scales of the leading enterprises in Gandang to cooperate with them to produce a certain part of their needs. This is not only a successful practice for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises at home and abroad, but also an objective law of the modern market economy. The majority of small and medium-sized enterprises must be willing to be green leaves, be willing to play a supporting role, courageously walk with giants, dare to dance with wolves, be good at climbing with big companies, borrowing stairs and going up the sea, taking advantage of the development. However, we must be more open-minded, do a good job in the strength of cooperative enterprises and anti-risk ability investigations, and put an end to the possibility of cooperation.

    

3. Take the road of deep processing of agricultural products. People eat for food. International experience and the law of economic development in developed countries show that when per capita GDP exceeds 1,000 US dollars, the market begins to shift from direct consumption to processing consumption; agricultural competition gradually evolves from farming competition to agricultural industrialization competition. Our province is a large agricultural province with abundant agricultural resources. China is a country with a large population. Everyone wants to eat, and Dunton wants to eat. The food industry market is huge. With the increase of the construction of new socialist countryside, with the acceleration of rural industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization, the agricultural product processing industry and the food industry not only have huge market space at present, but also an evergreen industry that never declines. SMEs are engaged in a vast territory, and there is much to be done.

     4, take the machine to change the way of development. Our province is now in the middle stage of industrialization and urbanization, with less technical labor and high labor costs. Most of the industries have already shuffled. Triangle debt companies, enterprises with excessive investment capital costs, labor-intensive low-tech enterprises, and low-credit companies are facing the danger of bankruptcy! For example, our good companies in Yongkang have taken the road of machine substitution, have their own brand industry and research and development capabilities, and have large-scale automatic high-tech production equipment. They can still operate healthily in such a bad environment this year. . The enterprises that have been closed down in Yongkang City are generally divided into three types: first, short-term loans and long-term investment, enterprises with excessive capital costs for fixed assets, and enterprises with insufficient profit and interest, etc.; A large amount of funds are used to participate in private lending, and enterprises that are seriously affected by the break-up of other companies' financial flows; third, corporate legal persons go to Macau to gamble enterprises; therefore, small and medium-sized enterprises have to go "small but special, small and fine, small The new, small and special road must also have its own brand, survive and grow up in shuffling. Take the road of scientific and technological progress. High technology determines the fate of economic development and the competitiveness of enterprises. With a patent, it has a development sky; with a core technology, it will form a new economic growth point. To occupy the market highlands, it is necessary to occupy the technical highlands and talent highlands. SMEs must be willing to spend money to buy first-class equipment, willing to spend money to introduce first-class talents, actively adopt new materials, new energy, new technologies, new technologies, adhere to science and technology, and embark on a road from manufacturing to intellectual creation and creation to form high-tech The competition in the technology industry is strong.

 3

    

5. Take the road of outward-oriented development. The modern economy has become market-oriented and international, and the outside world is very exciting. The market outside is very broad. Although small and medium-sized enterprises are small in scale, their horizons cannot be narrow. Although their strength is small, their ambitions cannot be short. They must do everything possible to get out of the provinces and countries, maximize the use of domestic and foreign resources, and strive to open up domestic and international markets and strengthen the province. Joint marriage of foreign companies, actively absorb the world's advanced technology, vigorously use foreign intellectual achievements, introduce extra-territorial funds through multiple channels, and actively carry out cross-regional joint ventures and cooperation. Conditional enterprises must establish ambitions and go abroad to invest and build factories and set up factories. Multinational companies go to the international market to compete and make money.

    6, take the road of modern service. The more the economy develops, the more developed the service should be. After China's accession to the WTO, the most important thing for enterprises is service. The people pay attention to services. The highlight of market competition is service. The most development space and potential are services. For the time being, the market calls for the development of the service industry, and the society needs the improvement of the service industry. From the future, with the development of social economy, industrial restructuring and the improvement of people's living standards, it will inevitably provide multi-level market demand and development space for the modern service industry, which will inevitably lead to many industries and new service industries. SMEs should adapt to change, update their concepts, seize opportunities, vigorously develop productive service industries, transform and enhance life service industries, encourage the development of labor-intensive service industries, and actively develop modern services such as logistics, tourism, finance, insurance, information, and so on. industry. This is a broad development prospect, and is very suitable for the transformation and upgrading of SMEs.

  

7. Take the road of industrial clusters. The development of SME clusters can better achieve resource sharing, facility sharing, interdependence, mutual cooperation, share risks, and expand the market, with obvious cost advantages, innovation advantages and competitive advantages. SMEs rely on cluster advantages to enhance market competitiveness, and relying on the people's war to win in business wars is a successful experience. From a foreign country, a watch industry cluster is rich in a Swiss country; from a domestic perspective, a lighter industry cluster has brought Wenzhou to the world; a cashmere industry cluster has changed the face of a poor county, Dongyang mahogany furniture, Yongkang hardware, Yiwu small commodities and other brands, large-scale, strong development of industrial clusters, this is a major feature of the Zhejiang economy, but also a highlight. The key now is to expand the cluster size as soon as possible, extend the industrial chain, expand leading enterprises, and create brand-name products.

    8, take the road of integrity management. There is a saying in the business community that "small wins rely on wisdom, and big wins depend on morality." It is said that earning a small amount of money can be done as long as there is intelligence and technology; but to make the company bigger and stronger, to make big money, to be a big boss, you must rely on credibility and morality; you must have a philosophical mind, Cultural heritage. The market economy is a credit economy, market competition is fair competition, it rejects fraud, rejects opportunism, and despise all acts that do not credibility. Enterprises occupy the market by brand and by reputation. The brand is essentially a reputation. Integrity is the foundation of business survival and the foundation of development. Most of the world's top 500 enterprises are "hundred years of enterprises", and their strong support platform for sustainable development is integrity. Haier adheres to the concept of selling credit and selling products first, making Haier a world famous brand. It is the credibility to make the enterprise bigger, and the credibility of the enterprise is to rely on the credibility. "Essence of people" should be the motto of SMEs.

    9. Take the road of scientific development brand. With the change of the social development era, the demand for low-end products is slowly decreasing, consumers pay more and more attention to product quality, brand awareness is constantly strengthened during consumption, and the development of small and medium-sized enterprises must consciously assume social responsibility, and cannot be used in production and management. Regardless of the current situation, regardless of the long-term; not as long as the enterprise benefits, not social benefits; can no longer take the old road of wasting resources and polluting the environment. We must adhere to the people-oriented principle, establish a scientific development concept, change the growth mode, develop a circular economy, improve our innovation capabilities, do everything possible to save energy and reduce consumption, do everything possible to save land, do everything possible to save water, do everything possible to protect the environment, actively implement comprehensive utilization of resources, and comprehensively promote clean production and safety. Production, a new path of good and fast development.

                                                         

                                                   Xu Xiongliang

                                                                 2014.10.12

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